Database Management Basics

Database management is the system to manage information that is essential to the company’s business operations. It involves storing data and distribution to users and applications and modifying it as needed, monitoring changes in the data and preventing it from getting corrupted due to unexpected failure. It is a part of the overall infrastructure of a business that assists in decision making, corporate growth, and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) that enabled the storage and retrieve massive amounts of data for a broad range of applications, from the calculation of inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a set of tables that store data in accordance with a specific scheme, such as one-to-many relationships. It uses the primary key to identify records and permits cross-references between tables. Each table has a set of attributes, or fields, which provide information about data entities. The most widely used type of database that is currently in use is a relational model created by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This model is based on normalizing data to make it easier to use. It also makes it simpler to update data by avoiding the necessity of changing many sections of the database.

The majority of DBMSs are able to support various types of databases, by providing different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level is concerned with cost, scalability, as well as other operational issues, including the physical layout of the database. The external level determines how the database appears in user interfaces and other applications. It may include a mix of different external views (based on the different data models) and may include virtual tables which are generated using generic data to improve performance.